Earth Sciences Division (ESD) Department of Energy (DOE) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

Earth Sciences Division Staff: Lehua Pan

Lehua Pan

Lehua Pan

Geological Research Scientist

Hydrogeology Department



Phone: 510-495-2360

Fax: 510-486-5686


Biographical Summary

Lehua Pan received his PhD in soil physics/hydrology from University of Arizona in 1995, MS in soil physics from Zhejiang Agricultural University in 1986, and BS in geology from Zhejiang University in 1982. Dr. Pan has been working at LBNL since 1997 and is an expert in computer modeling of Earth systems and processes. He is the author or co-author of numerous scientific publications and softwares.

Research Interests

  • Develop new approaches to modeling nonisosthermal multiphase flow and transport systems in subsurface and their interactions with the surrounding environments;
  • Develop new software to incorporate such new approaches with cutting-edge IT techniques;
  • Apply numerical simulation, analysis, and optimization techniques to solve real world resources and environmental problems, such as the geologic storage of carbon dioxide and nuclear waste, groundwater and vadose-zone contaminant remediation, and optimal watershed and resource management.


  • Ph.D. Soil Physics /Hydrology, 1995, University of Arizona, Tucson
  • M.S. Soil Physics, 1986, Zhejiang Agr. University, Hangzhou,China
  • B.S. Geology, 1982, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

Research Experience

  • 2004-­2012, Sr. Scientific Engr. Assoc., Earth Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
    Develop new approaches to modeling fluid flow and transport in saturated and unsaturated soils, porous and fractured media and develop new software to incorporate such new approaches with cutting­edge IT techniques.
    • Simulating subsurface processes related to geological CO2 sequestration using reservoir simulators and develop effective techniques for detecting possible CO2 leakage
    • Modeling geohydrological and geochemical evolutions of geothermal aquifer and the impacts of heat pump
    • Develop a coupled land surface and subsurface model in watershed/regional scale, CLMT2, which can be used to simulate the hydraulic responses of the land (from canopy to deep aquifer) to either short­term meteorological driving force or long­term climate change.
    • Expand CLMT2 to be capable of simulating the background CO2 flux on land surface (photosynthesis and respiration of plant and soil respiration, as response to meterologic variations, subsurface conditions, and land management/usage).
    • Develop WinGridder v3.0 –a Window­based grid generator for TOUGH2 simulators or other control­volume based numerical simulators.
    • Modeling coupled two­phase moisture flow and heat transfer within and around underground opening.
    • Develop T2Well(CO2), a coupled reservoir­wellbore simulator for simulating two­phase, CO2/brine flow within wellbores and surrounding formations
  • 1997-­2004, Geological Scientist, Earth Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
    • Develop new techniques for generating numerical grid that makes it practical to fully utilize the powerful simulation capacities of TOUGH2 family codes for solving large­scale modeling problems with complicated geological and engineering structures. Develop a graphical and interactive grid design and generating software, WinGridder v1.0 based on these new
    • techniques, which is used in generating the numerical grids for site­scale modeling for Yucca Mountain project. New improvements are being developed and implemented in WinGridder v2.0. The software will be expanded into a user­friendly interface for TOUGH2 code.
    • Develop new approaches for simulating transport in fractured porous media with random walk particle tracking method. The major breakthrough is the development of a new theory for calculating the particle transfer probability that can capture the transient features of the diffusion depth into matrix without using multiple matrix sub­blocks, along with an efficient algorithm for tracking particles in a 3­D, irregular mesh. Develop efficient transport simulators, Dual­continuum Particle Tracker (DCPT v1.0, v2.0, and dll version), for simulating transport in porous or fractured porous media.
    • Develop new inverse modeling tools for estimating hydraulic and transport parameters by nonlinear fitting the experiment results of transient flow and transport at column scale.
    • Improve understanding of the flow regime in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain with numerical modeling, analytical solutions, and analyzing the field observations.
    • Investigate new approaches to modeling transient flow and transport through layered and non­ideally fractured porous media.
  • 1996-­1997, Postdoctoral Fellow, Dept. of Soil & Environ. Sci. UC Riverside
    • Develop direct or inverse methods for Characterizing hydraulic properties and solute transport parameters in vadose zone
    • Measuring and modeling water and pollutant transport in field soils
    • Stochastic analysis and conditional simulation of nitrate leaching through the root zone
    • Field experimental investigation and modeling of the effects of irrigation nonuniformity on nitrogen and water use efficiencies and the nitrate leaching to groundwater in central California
  • 1992­-1995, Research Associate, Dept. of Soil & Water Sci., Univ. of Arizona, Tucson
    • Reviewing, developing, and applying numerical models for multidimensional and multiphase fluid flow, contaminant transport processes in subsurface.
    • Site assessment, inverse estimation of hydraulic and chemical properties, and stochastic analysis.
    • Numerical modeling unsaturated water flow in sloping system and the effects of capillary barriers and trenches
    • Applying automated data acquisition systems to subsurface environmental monitoring
  • 1986­-1991, Assistant research scientist, Inst. of Mountainous Disaster and Environment, Chinese Academy of Science, Chengdu Conceive, plan, write proposals, and conduct research on projects:
    • Experimental research and numerical modeling the transport processes of biodegradable solutes affected by heavy metals in soils;
    • Investigating adsorption characteristics of major soils in Sichuan basin, and developed a combined model for adsorption of phosphorus on calcareous soil;
    • Modeling runoff and sediment transport in a watershed concerning the effects of conservation tillage practices;
    • Geostatistical analysis of temporal and spatial variation of soil temperature and in­site estimation of soil thermal parameters;
    • Investigating the status and mechanism of soil degradation in Sichuan Basin;
  • 1982-­1983, Faculty, Dept. of Hydraulic Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin
    • Taught courses of geology, hydrogeology, and engineering geology (lecture, laboratory, and field survey).
    • Participated in several hydrogeological, engineering geological, and geochemical projects.


  • 2012 Director’s Award for Exceptional Tech Transfer Achievement, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  • The Secretary’s Achievement Award, United States Dept. of Energy, 2011.
  • Award of (Youth) Excellent Paper, Science & Technology Association of Sichuan Province, 1988.


  • WinGridder Version 1.0, 2.0, & 3.0:  ­­A visual grid generator for control volume based numerical simulators
  • T2Well/ECO2N  V1.0: – a coupled wellbore-reservoir simulator of nonisothermal, two phase, CO2-Brine flow
  • T2Well/EOS3 (beta) – a coupled wellbore-reservoir simulator of nonisothermal, two phase, Air-Water flow
  • T2Well/Eoil3 (beta) – a coupled wellbore-reservoir simulator of nonisothermal, two phase, Gas-oil flow
  • T2Well/EOS1 (beta) – a coupled wellbore-reservoir simulator of nonisothermal, two phase, one component (H2O) flow
  • T2Well/EOS7cma (beta) – a coupled wellbore-reservoir simulator of nonisothermal, two phase, 5 components flow
  • T2Well/ECO2H  (beta) – a coupled wellbore-reservoir simulator of nonisothermal, two phase, CO2-Brine flow (T beyond 110 C)
  • CLMT2/CO2 (beta) -- a coupled land surface-subsurface model with capability to simulating net CO2 flux from a terrestrial ecosystem as response to climate change, groundwater variations, and land management practices
  • SimAnneal Version 1.0:  A global optimization program for inverse parameter estimation based on Annealing­-Simplex method
  • Cylinder Version 1.0:  Unsaturated flow and transport simulator for for lab column
  • CLMT2 V1.0:  A Coupled surfacesubsurface model
  • ToolBox of some analytical solutions:  Java codes for several analytical solutions of water flow and transport problem through (fractured) porous media.