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Improving climate change prediction in high latitude systems requires an accurate understanding of both continuous and threshold-dominated permafrost dynamics. Quantifying permafrost dynamics is challenging due to the need to characterize subsurface controls over large spatial regions, in high resolution, and with minimal disturbance to fragile terrestrial ecosystems. To improve such quantification, we are exploring the utility of surface geophysical data for characterizing active layer and permafrost variability and for monitoring biogeochemical changes associated with freeze-thaw processes and carbon degradation. Quantifying linkages between subsurface and land surface variability and development of multi-scale estimation approaches are expected to contribute to an improved understanding of how permafrost dynamics impact carbon cycling and energy balance in high latitude systems.