Earth Sciences Division (ESD) Department of Energy (DOE) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

William (Bill) Collins' Publications (from most recent)

NOTE: To see Bill's publications in 5-year increments, click here.

  1. Wielicki, B. A., D.F. Young, M.G. Mlynczak, K.J. Thome, S. Leroy, J.  Corliss, J.G. Anderson, C.O. Ao, R. Bantges, F. Best, K. Bowman, H.  Brindley, W. Collins, J.A. Dykema, D.R. Doelling, D.R. Feldman, N. Fox, X. Huang, R. Holz, Y. Huang, Z. Jin, D. Jennings, D.G. Johnson, K.  Jucks, S. Kato, D.B. Kirk-Davidoff, R. Knuteson, G. Kopp, D.P. Kratz, X.  Liu, C. Lukashin, A.J. Mannucci, N. Phojanamongkolkij, P. Pilewskie, S.  Platnick, V. Ramaswamy, H. Revercomb, J. Rice, Y. Roberts, C.M.  Roithmayr, F. Rose, S. Sandford, E.L. Shirley, W.L. Smith, Sr., B. Soden, P.W. Speth, L. Strow, W. Sun, P.C. Taylor, D. Tobin, X. Xiong, "Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO): achieving climate change absolute accuracy in orbit, B." Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc, Submitted (2013).= 
  2. Roberts, Y., Pilewskie, P., B.C. Kindel, Feldman, D.R., W.D. Collins, (2013), “Quantitative Comparison of the Variability in Observed and Simulated Shortwave Reflectance”, Aerosol Chemistry and Physics, acp-2012-681. doi:10.5194/acpd-12-28305-2012.
  3. O’Brien, T. A., F. Li, W. D. Collins, S. A. Rauscher, T. D. Ringler, M. A. Taylor, S. M. Hagos, and L.-R. Leung, (2013), “Observed scaling in clouds and precipitation and scale incognizance in regional to global atmospheric models”, Journal of Climate, In Press , doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00005.1.
  4. Murphy, L.N., William J. Riley, and William D. Collins (2013), "Local and Remote Climate Impacts from Expansion of Woody Biomass for Bioenergy Feedstock in the Southeastern United states." J. Climate, 25(21): 7643--7659, 2012. doi:
  5. Li, Fuyu, William D. Collins, Michael F. Wehner, and L. Ruby Leung (2013), "Hurricanes in an aquaplanet world: Implications of the impacts of external forcing and model horizontal resolution." J. Advances Modeling Earth Systems, VOL. 5, 1–12, doi:10.1002/jame.20020, 2013.
  6. Leung, R., W.D. Collins, and J. Famiglietti (2013)," DOE report for Workshop on Community Modeling and Long-Term Predictions of the Integrated Water Cycle," DOE/SC-0155. (Report)
  7. Jones, A.D., W.D. Collins, J. Edmonds, M.S. Torn, A. Janetos, K.V. Calvin, A. Thomson, L.P. Chini, J. Mao, X. Shi, P. Thornton, G.C. Hurtt, M. Wise (2013), "Greenhouse Gas Policy Influences Climate via Direct Effects of Land-Use Change." J. Climate, 26, 3657–3670. doi:
  8. Jones, A. D., W. D. Collins, and M. S. Torn (2013), "On the additivity of radiative forcing between land use change and greenhouse gases," Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, doi:10.1002/grl.50754.
  9. Jones, A. D., Calvin, K. V., Collins, W. D., & Edmonds, J. (2013), "Towards a more consistent treatment of land-use change within climate assessment. Presented at the Impacts World 2013," International Conference on Climate Change Effects, Potsdam. (Published conference proceedings)
  10. Hurrell, James; Marika M. Holland; Peter R. Gent; Steven Ghan; Jennifer Kay; Paul Kushner; Jean-Francois Lamarque; William G. Large; David Lawrence; Keith Lindsay; William H. Lipscomb; Matthew Long; Natalie Mahowald; Daniel Marsh; Rich Neale; Philip Rasch; Steven Vavrus; Mariana Vertenstein; David Bader; William D. Collins; James J. Hack; Jeff Kiehl; Shawn Marshall  (2013) "The Community Earth System Model: A Framework for Collaborative Research." In Press, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, BAMS-D-12-00121.
  11. Hsieh, W. C., D. Rosa, and W. D. Collins. "Global dust simulations in the multiscale modeling framework." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems (2013). doi:10.1029/2012MS000150
  12. Flato, Gregory, Jochem Marotzke, Babatunde Abiodun, Pascale Braconnot, Sin Chan Chou, William Collins, Peter Cox, Fatima Driouech, Seita Emori, Veronika Eyring, Chris Forest, Peter Gleckler, Eric Guilyardi, Christian Jakob, Vladimir Kattsov, Chris Reason, Markku Rummukainen (2013), "Chapter 9: Evaluation of Climate Models. Working Group I contribution to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis" (WGI AR5). (Report)
  13. Feldman, Daniel R., Daniel M. Coleman, William D. Collins, 2013: On the Usage of Spectral and Broadband Satellite Instrument Measurements to Differentiate Climate Models with Different Cloud Feedback Strengths. J. Climate, 26, 6561–6574. doi:
  14. Conley, A.J., J.-F. Lamarque, F. Vitt, and W.D. Collins, and J. Kiehl (2013), "PORT, a CESM tool for the diagnosis of radiative forcing."  Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 469–476, doi:10.5194/gmd-6-469-2013.
  15. Rosa, D., J. F. Lamarque, and W. D. Collins. "Global transport of passive tracers in conventional and superparameterized climate models: Evaluation of multi‐scale methods." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 4.4 (2012). doi:10.1029/2012MS000206.
  16. Pressel, Kyle G., and William D. Collins. First-order Structure Function Analysis of Statistical Scale Invariance in the AIRS-Observed Water Vapor Field. J. Climate, 25(16):5538--5555, 2012.
  17. Liu, X., Easter, R. C., Ghan, S. J., Zaveri, R., Rasch, P., Shi, X., Lamarque, J.-F., Gettelman, A., Morrison, H., Vitt, F., Conley, A., Park, S., Neale, R., Hannay, C., Ekman, A. M. L., Hess, P., Mahowald, N., Collins, W., Iacono, M. J., Bretherton, C. S., Flanner, M.G., and Mitchell, D, 2012.: Toward a minimal representation of aerosols in climate models: description and evaluation in the Community Atmosphere Model CAMS, Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 709-739, doi:10.5194/gmd-5-709-2012.
  18. Li, F., D. Rosa, W. D. Collins, M. F. Wehner, 2012: 'Super-Parameterization'- a Better Way to Simulate Regional Extreme Precipitation? J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 4, M04002, doi:10.1029/2011MS000106.
  19. Koffi, B., M. Schulz, F.-M. Bréon, J. Griesfeller, D. Winker, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. Berntsen, M. Chin, W. D. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, L. W. Horowitz, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, D. Koch, M. Krol, G. Myhre, P. Stier, T. Takemura (2012), Application of the CALIOP layer product to evaluate the vertical distribution of aerosols estimated by global models: AeroCom phase I results, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D10201, doi:10.1029/2011JD016858.
  20. Kirtman, B.P., C. Bitz, F. Bryan, W. Collins, J. Dennis, N. Hearn, J.L. Kinter Ill, R. Loft, C. Rousset, L. Siqueira, C. Stan, R. Tomas and M. Vertenstein, 2012: Impact of Ocean Model Resolution on CCSM Climate Simulations.  Climate dynamics 39, no. 6 (2012): 1303-1328.
  21. de Boer, G., W.O. Collins, S. Menon and C.N. Long, 2011:  Using Surface Remote Sensors to Derive Radiative Characteristics of Mixed-Phase Clouds:  An Example from M-PACE, Atmos. Chern. Phys., 11, 11937-11949, doi:10.5194/acp-11-11937-2011.
  22. Li, F., W.O. Collins, M.F. Wehner, D.L. Williamson, J.G. Olson, C. Algieri, 2011: Impact of horizontal resolution on simulation of precipitation extremes in an aqua­ planet version of the Community Atmosphere Model {CAM), Tellus A, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0870.2011.00544.x.
  23. Li, F., W.D. Collins, M.F. Wehner, D.L. Williamson, J.G. Olson, 2011: Response of precipitation extremes to global warming in an aqua-planet climate model: towards robust projection from regional to global scales, Tellus A, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0870.2011.00543.x.
  24. Feldman, D.R.; C.A. Algieri, W.D. Collins, Y.L. Roberts, P.A. Pilewskie (2011), Simulation studies for the detection of changes in broadband albedo and shortwave nadir reflectance spectra under a climate change scenario  J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 116, No. D24, D24103
  25. Feldman, D.R., C.A. Algieri, J.R. Ong, and W.D. Collins, 2011:CLARREO shortwave observing system simulation experiments of the twenty-first century: Simulator design and implementation,J. Geophys. Res., 116, D10107, doi: 10.1029/2010JD015350.
  26. Zhang, G.J., A.M. Vogelmann, M.P. Jensen, W.D. Collins , and E.P. Luke, 2009: Relating Satellite-Observed Cloud Properties from MODIS to Meteorological Conditions for Marine Boundary Layer Clouds. J. Climate, 23, 1374-1391, doi:10.1175/2009JCLI2897.1.
  27. Kato, S., F.G. Rose, S. Sun-Mack, W.F. Miller, Y. Chen, D.A. Rutan, G.L. Stephens, N.G. Loeb, P. Minnis, B.A. Wielicki, D.M. Winker, T.P. Charlock, P.W. Stackhouse, K.­M. Xu, and W. Collins, 2010: Computation of top-of-atmosphere and surface irradiances with CALIPSO, CloudSat, and MODIS derived cloud and aerosol properties. J. Geophys. Res. 116, D19209, doi:10.1029/2011JD016050.
  28. Jensen, M.P., A.M. Vogelmann, W.D. Collins, G.J. Zhang, and E. Luke, 2008: Investigation of regional and seasonal variations in marine boundary layer cloud properties from MODIS observations. J. Climate 21, 4955–4973.
  29. Iacono, M.J., J.S. Delamere, E.J. Mlawer, M.W. Shephard, S.A. Clough, and W.D. Collins, 2008, Radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases: Calculations with the AER radiative transfer models, J. Geophys. Res.., 113, D13103, doi:10.1029/2008JD009944.
  30. Meehl, G.A., J.M. Arblaster, and W.D. Collins, 2008: Effects of black carbon aerosols on the South Asian Monsoon. J. Climate, 21, 2869–2882.
  31. Yoshioka, M., N.M. Mahowald, A.J. Conley, W.D. Collins, D.W. Fillmore, C.S. Zender, and D.B. Coleman, 2007: Impact of desert dust radiative forcing on Sahel precipitation: Relative importance of dust compared to sea surface temperature variations, vegetation changes and greenhouse gas warming. J. Climate, 20, 1445-1467.
  32. Collins, W.D., J.M. Lee-Taylor, D.P. Edwards, and G.L. Francis, 2006: E.ects of increased near-infrared absorption by water vapor on the climate system. J. Geophys. Res., 111, article no. D18109, doi:10.1029/2005JD006796.
  33. Mahowald, N.M., M. Yoshioka, W.D. Collins, A.J. Conley, D.W. Fillmore, and D.B. Coleman, 2006: Climate response and radiative forcing from mineral aerosols during the last glacial maximum, pre-industrial, current, and doubled-carbon dioxide climates. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, article no. L20705, doi:10.1029/2006GL026126.
  34. Gettelman, A., W.D. Collins, E.J. Fetzer, A. Eldering, and F.W. Irion, 2006: A satellite climatology of upper tropospheric relative humidity and implications for climate. J. Climate, 19, 6104–6121.
  35. Sun, D.Z., T. Zhang, C. Covey, S. Klein, W.D. Collins, J.J. Hack, J.T. Kiehl, G.A Meehl, I.M. Held, and M. Suarez, 2006: Radiative and dynamical feedbacks over the equatorial cold-tongue: Results from seven atmospheric GCMs. J. Climate, 19, 4059–4074.
  36. Collins, W.D., V. Ramaswamy, M.D. Schwarzkopf, Y. Sun, R.W. Portmann, Q. Fu, S.E.B. Casanova, J.-L. Dufresne, D.W. Fillmore, P.M.D. Forster, V.Y. Galin, L.K. Go­har, W.J. Ingram, D.P. Kratz, M.-P. Lefebvre, J. Li, P. Marquet, V. Oinas, Y. Tsushima, T. Uchiyama and W.Y. Zhong, 2006: Radiative forcing by well-mixed greenhouse gases: Estimates from climate models in the IPCC AR4. J. Geophys. Res., 111, article no. D14317, doi:10.1029/2005JD006713.
  37. Meehl, G.A., W.M. Washington, B. Santer, W.D. Collins, J.M. Arblaster, A. Hu, D.M. Lawrence, H. Teng, L.E. Buja, and W.G. Strand, 2006: Climate change in the 20th and 21st centuries and climate change commitment in the CCSM3. J. Climate, 19, 2597–2616.
  38. Kinne, S., M. Schulz, C. Textor, S. Guibert, Y. Balkanski, S. Bauer, T. Berntsen, T. Berglen, O. Boucher, M. Chin, W. Collins, F. Dentener, T. Diehl, R. Easter, H. Fe­ichter, D. Fillmore, S. Ghan, P. Ginoux, S. Gong, A. Grini, J. Hendricks, M. Herzog, L. Horrowitz, I. Isaksen, T. Iversen, A. Jones, S. Kloster, D. Koch, M. Krool, A. Lauer, J.F. Lamarque, G. Lesins, X. Liu, U. Lohmann, V. Montanaro, G. Myhre, J. Penner, G. Pitari, S. Reddy, D. Roberts, O. Seland, P. Stier, T. Takemura, and X. Tie, 2006: An AeroCom initial assessment – optical properties in aerosol component modules of global models. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1815–1834.
  39. Kiehl, J.T., C.A. Shields, J.J. Hack, and W.D. Collins, 2006: The climate sensitivity of the Community Climate System Model: CCSM3. J. Climate, 19, 2584–2596.
  40. Collins, W.D., P.J. Rasch, B.A. Boville, J.J. Hack, J.R. McCaa, D.L. Williamson, B.P. Briegleb, C.M. Bitz, S.-J. Lin, and M. Zhang, 2006: The formulation and atmospheric simulation of the Community Atmosphere Model: CAM3. J. Climate. 19, 2144–2161.
  41. Collins, W.D., C.M. Bitz, M.L. Blackmon, G.B. Bonan, C.S. Bretherton, J.A. Carton, P. Chang, S.C. Doney, J.J. Hack, T.B. Henderson, J.T. Kiehl, W.G. Large, D.S. McKenna, B.D. Santer, and R.D. Smith, 2006: The Community Climate System Model: CCSM3. J. Climate, vol 19, 2122–2143.
  42. Lamarque, J.F., J. Kiehl, G. Brasseur, T. Butler, P. Cameron-Smith, W.D. Collins, W.J. Collins, C. Granier, D. Hauglustaine, P. Hess, E. Holland, L. Horowitz, M. Lawrence, D. McKenna, P. Merilees, M. Prather, P. Rasch, D. Rotman, D. Shindell, and P. Thornton, 2005: Assessing future nitrogen deposition and carbon cycle feedback using a multi-model approach. Part 1: Analysis of nitrogen deposition. J. Geophys. Res., 110, article no. D19303, doi:10.1029/2004JD005463.
  43. Lamarque, J.F., J.T. Kiehl, P.G. Hess, W.D. Collins, L.K. Emmons, P. Ginoux, C. Lou, and X.X. Tie, 2005: Coupled chemistry-climate response to changes in aerosols emissions: global impact on the hydrological cycle and the tropospheric burdens of OH, ozone and NOx. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, article no. L16809, doi:10.1029/2005GL023419.
  44. Santer, B.D., T.M.L. Wigley, K.E. Taylor, P.W. Thorne, M.F. Wehner, J.S. Boyle, W. Collins, K.W. Dixon, C. Doutriaux, P.J. Gleckler, J.E. Hansen, T.R. Karl, S.A. Klein, J.R. Lanzante, C. Mears, G.A. Meehl, V. Ramaswamy, D.J. Seidel, and F.J. Wentz, 2005: Modeled and observed lapse-rate changes in the deep tropics. Science, 309, 1551-1556.
  45. Meehl, G.A, W.M. Washington, W.D. Collins, J.M. Arblaster, A. Hu, L.E. Buja, W.G. Strand, and H. Teng, 2005: How much more global warming and sea level rise? Science, 307, 1769–1772.
  46. Diner, D.J., R.T. Menzies, R.A. Kahn, T.L. Anderson, J. Bosenberg, R.J. Charlson, B.N. Holben, C.A. Hostetler, M.A. Miller, J.A. Ogren, G.L. Stephens, O. Torres, B.A. Wielicki, P.J. Rasch, L.D. Travis, and W.D. Collins, 2004: Using the PARAGON framework to establish an accurate, consistent, and cohesive long-term aerosol record. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85, 1535–1548.
  47. Diner, D.J., T.P. Ackerman, T.L. Anderson, J. Bosenberg, A.J. Braverman, R.J. Charl­son, W.D. Collins, R. Davies, B.N. Holben, C.A. Hostetler, R.A. Kahn, J.V. Martonchik, R.T. Menzies, M.A. Miller, J.A. Ogren, J.E. Penner, P.J. Rasch, S.E. Schwartz, J.H. Sein­feld, G.L. Stephens, O. Torres, L.D. Travis, B.A. Wielicki, and B. Yu, 2004: PARAGON: An integrated approach for characterizing aerosol climate impacts and environmental interactions. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85, 1491–1501.
  48. Tie, X., S. Madronich, S. Walters, R. Zhang, P. Rasch, and W. Collins, 2003: Effect of clouds on photolysis and oxidants in the troposphere. J. Geophys. Res., 108, article no. 4642, doi:10.1029/2003JD003659.
  49. Collins, W.D., J.K. Hackney, and D.P. Edwards, 2002: An updated parameterization for infrared emission and absorption by water vapor in the National Center for Atmo­spheric Research Community Atmosphere Model. J. Geophys. Res., 107, article no. 4664, doi:10.1029/2001JD001365.
  50. Pope, S.K., F.P.J. Valero, W.D. Collins, and P. Minnis, 2002: Comparison of ScaRaB, GOES-8, aircraft, and surface observations of the absorption of solar radiation by clouds. J. Geophys. Res., 107, article no. 4114, doi:10.1029/2001JD001139.
  51. Collins, W.D., P.J. Rasch, B.E. Eaton, D.W. Fillmore, J.T. Kiehl, T.C. Beck, and C.S. Zender, 2002: Simulation of aerosol distributions and radiative forcing for INDOEX: Regional climate impacts. J. Geophys. Res., 107, article no. 8028, doi:10.1029/2000JD000032.
  52. Duvel, J.P., M. Viollier, P. Raberanto, R. Kandel, M. Hae.elin, L.A. Pakhomov, V.A. Golovko, J. Mueller, R. Stuhlmann, and the International ScaRaB Scientific Working Group, 2001: The ScaRaB-Resurs Earth radiation budget dataset and first results. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 82, 1397–1408.
  53. Collins, W.D., 2001: Parameterization of generalized cloud overlap for radiative calculations in general circulation models. J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 3224–3242.
  54. Ramanathan, V., P.J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M.O. An­dreae, W. Cantrell, G. Cass, C.E. Chung, A.D. Clarke, W.D. Collins, J.A. Coakley, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A.J. Heyms.eld, B. Holben, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J.T. Kiehl, T.N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, A.P. Mitra, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J.A. Ogren, I.A. Podgorny, K. Prather, J.M. Prospero, K. Priestley, P.K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P.J. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourney, S.K. Satheesh, P. Sheridan, G.E. Shaw, and F.P.J. Valero, 2001: The Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated assessment of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 28371– 28398.
  55. Clarke, A., W.D. Collins, P.J. Rasch, V. Kapustin, K. Moore, and S. Howell, 2001: Pollution transport on global scales: Measurements and model predictions. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 32555–32570.
  56. Rasch, P.J., W.D. Collins and B.E. Eaton, 2001: Understanding the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) aerosol distributions with an aerosol assimilation. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 7337–7356.
  57. Collins, W.D., P.J. Rasch, B.E. Eaton, B.V. Khattatov, J.-F. Lamarque, and C.S. Zender, 2001: Simulating aerosols using a chemical transport model with assimilation of satellite aerosol retrievals: Methodology for INDOEX. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 7313–7336.
  58. Collins, W.D., 2001: Effects of enhanced shortwave absorption on coupled simulations of the tropical climate system. J. Climate, 14, 1147–1165.
  59. Collins, W.D., A. Bucholtz, D. Lubin, P. Flatau, F.P.J. Valero, C.P. Weaver, and P. Pilewskie, 2000: Determination of surface heating by convective cloud systems in the central equatorial Pacific from surface and satellite measurements. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 14807–14821.
  60. Bony, S., W.D. Collins, and D.W. Fillmore, 2000: Indian Ocean low clouds during the winter monsoon. J. Climate, 13, 2028–2043.
  61. Meehl, G.A., W.D. Collins, B.A. Boville, J.T. Kiehl, T.M.L. Wigley, and J.M. Arblaster, 2000: Response of the NCAR Climate System Model to increased CO2 and the role of physical processes. J. Climate, 13, 1879–1898.
  62. Wu, X., W.D. Hall, W.W. Grabowski, M.W. Moncrie., W.D. Collins, and J.T. Kiehl, 1999: Long-term behavior of cloud systems in TOGA COARE and their interactions with radiative and surface processes, part II: Effects of microphysics on cloud-radiation interaction. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 3177–3195.
  63. van Hees, R.M., J. Lelieveld, and W.D. Collins, 1999: Detecting tropical convection using AVHRR satellite data. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 9213–9228.
  64. Collins, W.D., 1998: A global signature of enhanced shortwave absorption by clouds. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 31669-31679.
  65. Kandel, R., M. Viollier, P. Raberanto, J.Ph. Duvel, L.A. Pakhomov, V.A. Golovko, A.P. Trishchenko, J. Mueller, E. Raschke, R. Stuhlmann, and the International ScaRaB Scientific Working Group, 1998: The ScaRaB Earth Radiation Budget Dataset. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 79, 765-783.
  66. Jayaraman, A., D. Lubin, S. Ramachandran, V. Ramanathan, E. Woodbridge, W.D. Collins, and K.S. Zalpuri, 1998: Direct observations of aerosol radiative forcing over the tropical Indian Ocean during the Jan.–Feb. 1996 pre-INDOEX cruise. J. Geo­phys. Res., 103, 13827–13836.
  67. Heymsfield, A.J., G.M. McFarquhar, W.D. Collins, J.A. Goldstein, F.P.J. Valero, J. Spinhirne, W. Hart, and P. Pilewskie, 1998: Cloud microphysical properties leading to highly reflective tropical cirrus. J. Geophys. Res., 103, 8805–8812.
  68. Valero, F.P.J., A. Bucholtz, B. Bush, S.K. Pope, W.D. Collins, P. Flatau, A. Strawa, and W.J.Y. Gore, 1997: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE): Experimental and data details. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 29929– 29937.
  69. Zender, C.S., S. Pope, B. Bush, W.D. Collins, J.T. Kiehl, F.P.J. Valero, and J. Vitko, 1997: Atmospheric absorption during ARESE. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 29901–29915.
  70. Collins, W.D., J. Wang, J.T. Kiehl, G.J. Zhang, D. Cooper, and W. Eichinger, 1997: Comparison of tropical ocean-atmosphere fluxes with the NCAR Community Climate Model CCM3. J. Climate, 10, 3047–3058.
  71. Valero, F.P.J., W.D. Collins, P. Pilewskie, P. Flatau, and A. Bucholtz, 1997: Direct radiometric observations of the water vapor super greenhouse effect over the equatorial Pacific ocean. Science, 275, 1773–1776.
  72. Collins, W.D., F.P.J. Valero, P. Flatau, H. Grassl, and P. Pilewskie, 1996: The radiative effects of convection in the tropical Pacific. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 14999–15012.
  73. Waliser, D.E., W.D. Collins, and S.P. Anderson, 1995: An estimate of the surface short-wave cloud forcing over the western Pacific during TOGA COARE. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 519–522.
  74. Lohmann, U., E. Roeckner, W.D. Collins, A. Heymsfield, and G. McFarquhar, 1995: The role of water vapor and convection during the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) from observations and model simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 100, 26229– 26245.
  75. Collins, W.D., and A.K. Inamdar, 1995: Validation of clear-sky fluxes for tropical oceans from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. J. Climate, 8, 569–578.
  76. Weaver, C.P., W.D. Collins, and H. Grassl, 1994: The relationship between clear-sky atmospheric greenhouse effect and deep convection during the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX): Model calculations and satellite observations. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 25891–25901.
  77. Ramanathan, V., W.D. Collins, and B. Subasilar, 1994: Comment on the paper “An inquiry into the cirrus-cloud thermostat effect for tropical sea surface temperature” by K.M. Lau, C.H. Sui, M.D. Chou, and W.K. Tau. Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 1185–1186.
  78. Ramanathan, V., and W. Collins, 1993: A thermostat in the tropics. Nature, 361, 410–411.
  79. Ramanathan, V., and W. Collins, 1992: Thermostat and global warming. Nature, 357, 649.
  80. Collins*, W.D., 1992: Mechanics of apparent horizons. Physical Review D15, 45, 495–498.
  81. Collins*, W.D., 1992: The theory of magnetohydrodynamic wave generation by localized sources III. Efficiency of plasma heating by dissipation of far-field waves. The Astrophysical Journal, 384, 319–332.
  82. Ramanathan, V., and W.D. Collins, 1991: Thermodynamic regulation of ocean warming by cirrus clouds deduced from observations of the 1987 El Niño. Nature, 351, 27–32.
  83. Collins*, W.D., 1989: The theory of magnetohydrodynamic wave generation by localized sources II. Collisionless dissipation of wave packets. The Astrophysical Journal, 343, 499–506.
  84. Collins,* W.D., 1989: The theory of magnetohydrodynamic wave generation by localized sources I. General asymptotic theory. The Astrophysical Journal, 337, 548–567.
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