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A fundamental understanding of microbial community structure and function, and its linkage to biogeochemistry in petroleum reservoirs, may enable control of reservoir souring, the release of highly toxic and corrosive hydrogen sulfide through the reduction of sulfate. Recent studies suggest that most petroleum reservoirs have well-established microbial communities and that these communities have had a major long-term impact on the evolution of petroleum . Perturbations to this community would not only alter community structure and function, but reservoir geochemistry as well, impacting reservoir quality and oil recovery. The objective of the MEHR Ecogenomics Project is to develop a systems biology approach utilizing high-resolution, molecular methods that will enable monitoring, characterization, and ultimately lead to the control of MEHR environments to limit reservoir souring.