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Approximately 1,500 sites comprising approximately 15 million acres that potentially contain unexploded ordnance (UXO) exist in the United States alone. In practice, the major costs in cleanup are excavation and removal, but at present, 90% of the objects detected are non-UXO, and 75% of the cost of excavation is for these non-UXO objects. Existing systems can detect metallic objects in the ground, but cannot discriminate between the generally cylindrical and symmetric intact UXO and the scraps or fragments of exploded UXO that are harmless. SERDP- and ESTCP-supported unexploded ordnance (UXO) research conducted by the Environmental Remediation & Water Resources Program in the LBNL Earth Sciences Division focuses on the design, fabrication, field testing, and validation of novel instrumentation for characterizing the location, size, shape, and metal content of a buried UXO.