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ESD scientists are at the forefront of monitoring GCS processes. From the time of injection through site closure, the migration of injected CO2, its pressure, temperature, saturation, and degree of trapping are critical elements of performance of the GCS system. In formations above the injection zone, and at the ground surface, assurance monitoring is useful for verifying storage and for early detection of unexpected leakage. Approaches for monitoring include surface and borehole seismic, including continuous active source methods (CASSM), gravity, down hole thermal methods, in situ sampling (e.g., using the U-tube), tracer analysis, pressure monitoring, microseismic arrays, and above-ground monitoring using eddy covariance, flux chamber, and other approaches.