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Stakeholders including project proponents and their financial backers, insurance companies, regulators, and the public all demand information on risk assessment before, during, and after CO2 injection. The essence of risk assessment is the determination of what can go wrong, the modeling and prediction of what kinds of impacts could occur, and the estimation of the likelihood of events leading to specific impacts. The risk is the product of the impact and the likelihood of the event. ESD scientists are working on evaluating impacts of CO2 injection such as effects on groundwater, and on geomechanics including induced seismicity. ESD scientists are also developing a simple and transparent framework for risk assessment, along with the modeling and data analysis tools to predict impacts and likelihoods.